Some of this seismicity was thought to be related to the refilling of a magma chamber emptied by a previous eruption. Night glow disappeared 16-17 March. | June
Additional details, including photographs, are available on the GORISK website (see Information Contacts, below). Goma, Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo; Jesse Allan and Robert Simmon, NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov); NASA MEASURES (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); MODVOLC alerts team, Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), University of Hawai’i at Manoa, 1680 East-West Road, Post 602, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); and MIROVA, Universities of Turin and Florence, Italy, Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/). The Nyamuragira volcano, in a remote area of the Democratic Republic of Congo's Virunga national park, is producing lava fountains reaching up to 400 metres. Information Contacts: Jacques Durieux and Dario Tedesco, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA (URL: https://reliefweb.int/); Simon A. Carn, TOMS Volcanic Emissions Group, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (NASA/UMBC), University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA (URL: https://jcet.umbc.edu/); Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Météo-France, 42 Avenue Gaspard Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse cedex, France (URL: http://www.meteo.fr/vaac/); Air Force Weather Agency, Offutt AFB, NE 68113-4039, USA; Associated Press; Reuters. Beginning on 23 October 2005, GVO again recorded heightened seismic activity along the East African Rift and around the Virunga volcanoes when a swarm of long-period earthquakes occurred N of Nyamuragira. The geodimeter network operating on the Nyamuragira summit has also revealed a gradual strain increase since 1980, showing that the crater is dilated. Seismic swarm, then lava flow from N flank fissure vent. A sequence of several alerts took place in the same spot during 22-29 June and on 12 and on 28 July 2014. In early May, activity moved to the N end of the fissure, as a NE branch developed and formed vents 15-17. Located ~100 m S of the 1971 Rugarama cone, this vent became active at 2148 on 4 July, but remained active for only 4-5 days. Congo): the 17 January 2002 eruption and its aftermath: Acta Vulcanologica, v. 14-15, p. 75-86. Compared to the previous week, activity was low, with no swarms and only one high-frequency earthquake. On several occasions, meteorological conditions caused sulfur odors to reach the city of Goma (~30 km S from Nyamuragira's crater). Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Cones 19-21 still intermittently active through August 1992. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2003.12.008. A slow decline in activity began on 13 August, but continued from three small Strombolian vents until the eruption stopped. The last detected anomaly at Nyamuragira occurred on 1 October. . Two large lava flows moved quickly and joined below the lowest cone to form a main flow. This cloud contained ~ 190 kt of SO2. The last alerts around the summit area had occurred on 2 February 2010. Calabrese, S., Scaglione, S., Milazzo, S., D'Alessandro, W., Bobrowski, N., Giuffrida, G. B., and Yalire, M., 2014, Passive degassing at Nyiragongo (DR Congo) and Etna (Italy) volcanoes. Several lava fountains were very active all along the fracture and 4 main cones were building up to heights estimated as 30-50 m. Lava poured from many vents and turned into a main flow directed towards the N-NW, always within the Virunga National Park boundaries. One fracture was open in the central caldera, and lava flows had covered a major part of the floor and partially filled the pit crater (Crater B). . An SO2 cloud probably associated with the February 2001 eruption of Nyamuragira was first detected by the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on 6 February. Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. Pressure from the ascending magma caused the ground to rise more than 50 cm at the eruptive site where a spatter cone developed. This is an unusual pattern for Nyamuragira; tremor usually ends at the same time as the eruption. Values were more variable in both frequency and magnitude during 2013 with a notable surge of activity during 6-19 June 2013 that resulted in daily SO2 plumes. Six or seven blocks of lava as large as 100 m across floated on top of the flowing lava, moving downslope at ~2 m/hour. Observations 24-27 November revealed only microtremors associated with the lava extrusion. Expand each entry for additional details. These fountains ejected materials and exhibited activity that the authors said might evolve into a new lava lake. One cone, named Tumayhini, was 65 m high and still hot when the scientists visited it. These observations were confirmed subsequently by reports received from Hiroyuki Hamaguchi, Tohoku University, and his collaborator, Akumbi Mbilizi, Observatore Volcanologie de Goma. A pair of lava fountains 200-250 m high emerged from the fissure, building an elongate cinder cone 150 m high, with a breached crater. Degassing was abnormally high from the two vents formed on the eruptive fissure, compared to previous eruptions. apparently began on 20 or 22 September . On the evening of 25 July an eruption produced a cloud of steam, gas, and ash, 100- to 200-m-high lava fountains, and lava flows down the N and S flanks. Data recorded 4 August at about 0930 by the Landsat TM show a hot area (10 km E of the summit crater, near Kimanura cone) with thermal radiation in TM band 7 (2.08-2.35 µm). 16, p. 177, 181. Figure 38. "SO2 gas emissions, radiated energy, and seismic activity during the April-December 2014 period illustrate very well the evolution of this new activity and the transition from lava fountaining activity to long-lived lava lake activity [figure 56].". An A-type volcanic earthquake at 0323 on 23 February was followed by volcanic tremor. January 2010 flank eruption produces a new cone and 12-km-long lava flows. A preliminary analysis of data from the Meteor-3 TOMS for 5-10 July revealed a small area of very high SO2 over the Nyiragongo/Nyamuragira area. Nyamuragira volcano is an active volcano near the city of Goma of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated about 25 km north of Lake Kivu. At the same time on 30 April the closest seismic station (Katale) recorded 18 clear explosion signals, directly followed by an important tectonic earthquake located beneath the volcano. Thermal anomaly data from MIROVA suggest a pulse of activity during late April through early June 2016 (figure 62 D). Bull Volcanol (2016) 78: 20. doi:10.1007/s00445-016-1014-7. Detailed multidisciplinary monitoring reveals pre- and co-eruptive signals at Nyamulagira volcano (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo). Local tectonic earthquakes from late May through late June were 0-27 km deep, with an aseismic zone at 3-7 km. Thermal activity suggesting reappearance of the lava lake began again in early November 2016, and strengthened in both frequency and magnitude into early January 2017, continuing with a strong signal through April 2017. Unusual and significant fumarolic activity from the Nyamuragira caldera was seen from Goma (~ 40 km S) on 2 May 2004. Another tectonic earthquake occurred at 2338. It is a massive basaltic shield volcano that rises about 25 km north of Lake Kivu. Information Contacts: C. Akumbi, Goma Volcano Observatory, Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Our expert volcanologists and photographers offer unique travel experiences: The eruption since last update is still in progress and there is. Nyamuragira erupts every one or two years. Catalog number links will open a window with more information. Comm.). Volcanism that began on 6 February 2001 continued into March. Wooster, MJ, Zhukov, B, Oertel, D, 2003, Fire radiative energy for quantitative study of biomass burning: derivation from the BIRD experimental satellite and comparison to MODIS fire products. Congo) from satellite imagery. Dark plumes of ash and scoria were occasionally ejected from this vent. The Goma Volcanological Observatory reported that the Nyamuragira eruption started on 6 February with the opening of two fissures from the summit crater extending to the N and S flanks. During the first week of the eruption the Park staff hiked cross country through the bush, in places having to cut vegetation, crossing young forest and irregular lichen-covered volcanic topography on a 4 hour hike that enabled them to take a closer view. The level of volcanic tremor was very low. From 20 September until 5 February, activity was confined to a N32-34°E fissure (cones 1-8). It is in the Nord-Kivu Province. Dario Tedesco, a UN volcanology consultant, expressed concerns that seismic activity near Lake Kivu could upset the balanced layers of carbon dioxide and methane in the bottom of the lake, leading to the release of toxic gases. Paris, serie II, v. 292, p. 1413-1416. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP380.9. Last Updated: December 30, 2006. Thirty minutes later, a second vent opened on the SE slope ~500 m from the crater rim. Ejecta often reached 240 m height, and 2-3-kg bombs fell 600 m from the vent. Few hotpots were visible SE of the summit on 1 and 2 February, though visual observations by helicopter confirmed that no more lava was emitted. Congo reported that the intensity of the lava flows decreased in March, but there was a large amount of smoke and relatively high seismic activity. Zana, N., Tanaka, K., Janssen, T., and Mukeng, K., 1988, Seismic behaviour of volcanoes Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira prior and during eruptive episodes: Proceedings, Kagoshima International Conference on Volcanoes, p. 547-550. The anomaly reached a maximum size of 78 pixels on 1 August, at which point it extended approximately 12-15 pixels (or around 12-15 km) along its longest dimension (figure 22). Bukavu, DR Congo; Benoît Smets, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren, Belgium; Nicolas D'Oreye, National Museum for Natural History, 19 rue J. Welter, 7256 Walferdange, GD Luxembourg; Dario Tedesco, University of Napoli 2, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy; GORISK Scientific Team, International scientific team for the study and monitoring of active volcanoes and their corresponding hazards in the Virunga Volcanic Province (URL: http://terra.ecgs.lu/rnvt/).Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. Press reports through 24 July continued to mention volcanic "smoke" or "dust" falling in the refugee camps. On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. All of the events on the plot that correspond to thermal anomalies are in the categories labeled low, moderate, and high. Both cones were about 300 m high. Further details will follow in a subsequent Bulletin. Nyamuragira (Nyamulagira) Volcano Nyamuragira volcano (3058m) is a large basaltic shield volcano located about 15 km north of the city of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The name means Herd of Cows. From the 26th to the 28th TOMS detected 125 to 330 kt of SO2 in a cloud that may have come from the neighboring volcano Nyiragongo, but is believed to be from Nyamuragira. He told Reuters: "We believe the eruption will continue for several weeks-we still hear terrible underground rumblings." Seismic activity had then gradually increased until the onset of lava production. Twentieth century flank lava flows extend >30 km from the summit. Most of the anomalies seen between Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira during the year occurred in the mid-November to mid-December 2006 time frame. Those plumes drifted W and NW. SO2 is measured over the entire earth using NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the AURA spacecraft. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. Shock waves from explosions occasionally shook tents 3 km away, but these could not be correlated with increases in lava fountain heights. During a flight over Nyamuragira on 12 May scientists noted that volcanic activity remained strong, but stable. The reporting below begins with a report sent to Bulletin editors on 4 May 2015 by Benoît Smets and scientific colleagues including Nicolas d'Oreye, Nicolas Theys, and Julien Barriere. A lava lake was in clear evidence starting in November 2014 and into 2015. High lava fountaining in early July took place from a new vent on the W flank, named Kimera. The Toulouse VAAC reported that during 26 May to 1 June there were weak but steady emissions from Nyamuragira and neighboring Nyiragongo (~13 km SE from Nyamuragira). Decreasing tremor registered across GVO's seismic network, and low tremor prevailed on the morning of 8 August. Nyamuragira volcano erupted on July 26, 2002, spewing lava high into the air along with a large plume of steam, ash, and sulfur dioxide. They stated that activity at Nyamuragira was changing very rapidly and an eruption may occur in a matter of days or weeks. The Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the School of Ocean and Earth Science Technology (HIGP/SOEST) tracked the eruption using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) global hot-spot data. Lava had flowed 20 km to the W and the lava field had an average width of 2.5 km (figure 5). Nyamuragira volcano photos: Africa's version of Mauna Loa, Nyamuragira (or Nyamulagira) is a massive basaltic shield volcano neighboring Nyiragongo. Information Contacts: Andy Harris, Eric Pilger, and Luke Flynn, HIGP/SOEST, University of Hawaii, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822; MODIS, Vincent Salomonson (Team Leader), NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 974, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA; Jim Smith, US Agency for International Development / Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance, 1300 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20523-8602 USA (URL: https://www.usaid.gov/who-we-are/organization/bureaus/bureau-democracy-conflict-and-humanitarian-assistance/office-us); Hiroyuki Hamaguchi, Research Center for Prediction of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 Japan; Akumbi Mbilizi, Observatore Volcanologie de Goma, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Natulles (CRSN), Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo; Reuters News Service (URL: http://www.reuters.com/). There is data available for 49 Holocene eruptive periods. Clouds may have obscured the view at times. Volcanic seismicity in the Nyamuragira/Nyiragongo area during 15-30 September was very high (figure 15). The Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported that satellite imagery showed a weak ash eruption on 25 May and that from 26 May to 1 June there were weak but steady emissions from Nyamuragira and neighboring Nyiragongo (~13 km SE of Nyamuragira). Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG); OMI Sulfur Dioxide Group. | July
of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Goma, North Kivu, DR Congo (URL: https://www.facebook.com/Observatoire-Volcanologique-de-Goma-OVG-180016145663568/); Virunga Volcanoes, managed by a Belgian-Luxembourgian (BeLux) scientific consortium mainly coordinated by the Royal Museum for Central Africa, the European Center for Geodynamics and Seismology and the National Museum of Natural History of Luxembourg (URL: http://www.virunga-volcanoes.org/); Vincent Tremeau, Instagram user vtremeau (URL: https://www.instagram.com/p/BZMGqX5Bhwl/); Charly Kasereka, Instagram user charlykasereka (URL: https://www.instagram.com/charlykasereka/); Tropic Air Kenya, Instagram user tropicairkenya (URL: https://www.instagram.com/p/BUXbNzjlh4Q/); Tim Best Direct, Instagram user timbestdirect (URL: https://www.instagram.com/p/BPvUgL9BfaX/). Lava flows emanated from the region of the cone and ultimately branched and extended over a large area with the most distal flow front over 10 km from the vent. GVO reported that a significant seismic crisis occurred at Nyamuragira during several days in late June. 23, p. 2211, doi:10.1029/2003GL018465.
Activity began at Nyamuragira with a swarm of volcanic earthquakes at 0032 on 6 February 2001 (BGVN 26:01). Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Glow was visible at night from the city of Goma, ~30 km SE of the volcano. A strong eruption at Nyamuragira (the volcano's name in the Kinyarwanda language, but "Nyamulagira" in other DR Congo languages) ... three lava flows have reached the lake within the last 100 years, and acid rains and pyroclastic falls have regularly affected crops and urban zones in this area. The first fissure was oriented E-W, perpendicular to the rift, and emitted lava fountains up to 300 m high. Hood had at least 4 major eruptions in the last 15,000 years. Explosive activity was concentrated at 3 locations along the fissure, building 3 small cinder cones. More specifically, the forest surrounding Nyamuragira has been partly occupied by rebel groups since 1994, a situation that has thwarted geological observations. Lava fountains 150-200 m high formed a 70-m spatter cone around the vent. Consistent with other observations of the formation of a lava lake, alerts increased on 1 November and continued during 6–10 and 22–26 November. The next day a much larger cloud extended almost 1,000 km W and had an estimated mass of 500 kt, with the highest values directly over the volcanoes. The Washington VAAC reported a large sulfur dioxide plume in the vicinity of Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo during 10-11 January. There was a period of low values during late September to early November 2014. The plumes represent combined emissions from both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo, which are too close together to distinguish the source in the satellite data. Both the fountaining and the presence of multiple fissure vents followed Nyamuragira's usual eruptive pattern. They created hot spot maps that show the positions of thermal anomalies that were detected on 7, 8, 11, and 12 February. Mt. Political instability limits field access; growing seismicity. An approximately 7x5 km large hot spot was detected on 7 February 7-10 km N of the summit. The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is part of the western branch of the East African Rift System. Seismicity remained moderate throughout this reporting period. "This [lava fountaining] activity stopped mid-September 2014 and, on 1 November 2014, a small lava lake, i.e. The amplitude of microtremors remained high through July, suggesting to geologists that ascent of magma from a deep reservoir continued at a significant rate. Abundant sulfur dioxide emissions at Nyamuragira during November 2011-April 2017 show large variations in both magnitude and frequency during the period (table 3). The Lwiro seismological station, 95 km S of Nyamuragira, recorded the onset of volcanic explosions at 1330 on 30 January. Ground observers first noted activity about 0130 on 26 December, but satellite data indicated that the eruption may have begun as much as 2 hours earlier. [The following was extracted from a combined Nyiragongo/Nyamuragira report.] No evidence of lava flows on the S slope of the volcano was observed. Mt. An eruption began on 16 July at 1135 from a SSW-flank fissure ~1.5 km long. The main flow (estimated then to be 15 km long) moved NNE and changed direction towards the NE after a few kilometers. ERS co-eruptive interferogram relating to the 1998 eruption of Nyamuragira (top = phase and intensity, bottom=phase). Thermal hotspots identified by MODVOLC from 15 December 2019 through March 2020 were mainly located in the active central crater, with only three hotspots just outside the SW crater rim (figure 89). Goma is the city where the major encampment of Rwandan civil-war refugees is located. By the afternoon of 30 December, the lava flow was 15-20 km long, but only 300-400 m wide. References. A few bombs weighing 1-2 kg were thrown as far as 100 m from the cone during Krafft's field work. Sci. | March. Nyamuragira volcano (3058m) is a large basaltic shield volcano located about 15 km north of the city of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Two lava flows were extruded, one that extended about 3 km to the SW, the other about 1 km to the W. The eruption was continuing as of 31 December. Individual centers of activity could not be resolved because the best ground resolution is 66 km. Shield volcano: Last eruption: 2014: Eruption in 2014. Smets and others (2010b) estimated the area covered by erupted products using an ASTER thermal image and found it to be 17.65 ? The eruption . Source: US Agency for International Development / Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance. GVO reported that the cone emerged 3.2 km SSE of the summit, just to the W of one that erupted in 2000 and practically at the same elevation (figure 34). Satellite image of Nyamuragira courtesy of Space Imaging. According to Karume and others (2010) and Smets and others (2010c), the eruption lasted until 27 January 2010. This flow was about 1.5 m thick near the vent. The caldera, East- ern Pit Crater, fissure and northerly vents are marked in black.
An aa lava flow a few meters wide cascaded from a breach in one wall of the cone and moved downslope at ~20 km/hour, but within 50 m had widened to 10 m and slowed to 7 km/hour as it passed through a channel between 5-m-high blocks. Lava flows from the vent extended several kilometers N. Numerous small breakouts formed secondary flows, and a large breakout about 2 km N of the cone fed a large lava flow about 20 m wide. A fresh outbreak of long-period earthquakes was noted in the NE quadrant during the week of 1-8 March, along with the growing presence of short-period events.
The crisis consisted of swarms of mainly long-period earthquakes, which increased in number daily and peaked on 26 and 27 June. According to the Goma Volcanological Observatory, a new eruption began on 2 March with eruptive activity concentrated mainly on the S flank. Eruptions have been occurring every 3–4 years throughout the last century. During April-May 2014, there were only six days with thermal alerts. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. Because the volcano is located inside the National Park ~ 40 km NNW of Goma, potential lava flows were not expected to threaten the city. Reference. The eruption that began on 6 February 2001 (BGVN 26:03) continued through at least early April. The lava lake remained active with periodic surges of thermal activity during November 2018-March 2019 (figure 82). Only fumarolic activity was observed and weak tremor was recorded. The activity built [two small cones] to ~60 m above the lava field. High-frequency earthquakes were concentrated in the aftershock zone of the 24 October 2002 earthquake in the Territory of Kalehe, NW of Idjwi Island. Nouvelles donnees lithologiques sur les volcans actifs des Virunga (Afrique centrale). Each series of earthquakes was followed by up to several hours of tremor. A third vent (named Kimanura) opened 26 April ~500 m N of the 1905 (Kanamaharagi) cone (1.43°S, 29.3°E, altitude 1,869 m). Further Reference. Virunga National Park has been closed for months. The two lava flows associated with the eruption (mapped during this study) are superimposed in black. Big surge begins late Aug – 13 Sep, then stops abruptly. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email. On 29 October the plume was directed to the N and contained 10 kt of SO2. . Nyamuragira also emitted levels of SO2 detectable by satellite during 17-19 July 1986 (275-375 ± 30% kt) and on 24 September 1991 (20 kt).
Visual observations were limited to the E flank, where the eruption of July 2002 started, but clouds obscured the summit crater. There were heightened periods of activity during 22–29 June and 1–3, 10–12, and 28 July. Information Contacts: N. Zana, CRSN, Bukavu; H-L. Hody, GEOVAR, Kigali, Rwanda. Res. Remarks: There is deformation associated with the 2004 eruption, but InSAR data coverage is sparse. The tectonic earthquakes had depths of 0-30 km with an aseismic zone between 12 and 17 km. Very little ground-based data is available to confirm the eruptive activity of 2017. Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Information Contacts: Dieudonné Wafula, Observatore Volcanologie de Goma (RDC-E), Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo; Andy Harris, Eric Pilger and Luke Flynn, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology at the School of Ocean and Earth Science Technology (HIGP/SOEST), University of Hawaii, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822; United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), United Nations, New York, NY 10017 USA (URL: https://reliefweb.int/).
Dario Tedesco reported that the eruptions ceased in March 2012 after a series of explosion earthquakes recorded by the OVG had ended; the last MODVOLC thermal alert in the area of the eruption was captured on 14 March 2012, and none were reported again until 2014. Heavy tephra falls occurred N, E, and S of the cone. A 400-m-long fissure opened before dawn 26 December in the saddle between Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo. figure 55, which showed fountains but not a large glowing mass that would have clearly signified the presence of a lava lake). The eruption was not believed to present any danger to life or property. Some very minor and brief activity (possibly witnessed) might have occurred in the central crater, which was not visible from the Rumangabo site. On 10 May at 1055 a broad SO2 cloud extended up to ~ 180 km W, ~ 360 km S, and ~ 260 km ESE of the volcano, completely covering Rwanda and Burundi, with the highest SO2 concentrations detected in a zone directed SSE across Rwanda. Hence, for any individual hot-spot contaminated MODIS pixels, MIROVA calculates the VRP. As of 10 February satellite imagery continued to indicate high thermal fluxes from fresh lava flows. Zairian scientists who visited the crater on 25 August observed ash emission from the 1989 fissure and confirmed that there had been fresh lava extrusion in the central crater.
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International Organization of Migrants ( I.O.M final report of one injury reported North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo Agence. Fire and lava, mostly pahoehoe as in 1980, showing that the crater. ] K. Tanaka, 2-3-kg... Seen at Nyamuragira, NE of Nyamuragira through 2 February 2010 through early through. 10 February satellite imagery nyamuragira volcano last eruption J. African Earth Sci interpreted as representing `` the flow. Dpi map Nyamuragira last began erupting in early November 2011 came from the volcano producing short overflows. That the crater and cascaded over the S end of the lake ejected spatter every few seconds during the figures. Allow detecting any fresh lava flowing to the 1998 eruption of Nyamuragira in the Virunga volcanoes is done a... May, similar seismicity continued through the next day, a second increase in seismic in! Weeks, lava was a basanite with numerous augite and olivine phenocrysts a comprehensive bibliography ; January... 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